Brainstorming – multiple positions blade

Various concepts and finally easy solution out

Typically, Brainstorming session with multiple people leads to multiple ideas, but for this use case, it was only me, Saturday morning and paper and pen.

I dreamed about many complex ideas to get solution to the problem statement last night, and started putting them on paper in the morning. Constrains was, the blade (triangular piece) should be able to adjust angle, should hold the position under force and pressure and should be easy to manage.

Post this session the simplifying various concepts and removing complexity from each on of them , got a simplified version. Just bolt it thru. Will share updates once I get 3D done.

Design : 1 : Shell

We design pressure vessel for longitudinan and circumferencial stresses. Now whats that?
Ok, longitudinal stresses comes on circumferencial joints, where as circumferencial stresses comes on longitudinal joints.
And to add cherry on top circumferencial stresses are twise that of longitudinal stresses.
If you are not yet twisted your tongue, and to avoid that we generally call them c’seam and l’seam and c’stress and l’stress.

In below pictures, one can identify types of Seams and Stress.

here p is design pressure, R is internal Radius, L is Length of shell, t is thickness of shell.

Hence with the basic mechanical formula,
t for Hoop stresses = pL (2R)/2 xStressx L = pR/Allw. Stress
t Longitudinal stresses = px3.14xR^2 / (2×3.14xRxAllw. Stress) = PR/2 Allw. Stress

& what ASME Says..
t for Hoop Stress = PR/(SE – 0.6P)
Where S > All. Stress, E > Joint Eff. or factor of safety
why 0.6 P, because, its factor of safety set by ASME People

t for Longitudinal Stress = PR/(2SE+0.4P)

Note the ‘2’ in denominator..

if E remain the same for both cases, then thickness given by Hoop stress will be twice that of by Longitudinal stresses

For Calculation Sheet Visit

Pressure Vessel catagory (Design Persay)


The Billion dollar Question…

Just to make it easy, we will break the pressure vessel in two category..
1. Pressure Vessel without external loading &
2. Pressure Vessel With external Loading

For Category 1, we can use ASME Section VIII Div. 1 directly, where as for Category 2, we need to consider additional loadings. And for additional loading we need to follow the basic engineering practices.

Hence, in future section, 1st we will discuss the Sizing of Pressure vessel as per ASME Section VIII Div. 1, and then we discuss the additional loading part.

“Terms” in Pressure Vessels

Failure: Failure of a structure is an event, the transition from a normal working state, where the structure meets its intended requirements, to a failed state, where it does not meet its requirements
Limit states: A limit state is a structural condition beyond which the design performance requirements of a component are not satisfied. Limit states are classified into ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states
Elastic limit states: An elastic limit state is a structural condition associated with the onset of plastic deformation. This term is usually used in connection with monotonic actions, and it relates to virtual structures, usually with zero initial stress distribution
OPERATING PRESSURE : The pressure which is required for the process, served by the vessel, at which the vessel is normally operated.
DESIGN PRESSURE : The pressure used in the design of a vessel. It is recommended to design a vessel and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. A design pressure higher than the operating pressure with 30 psi or 10 percent, whichever is the greater, will satisfy this requirement, The pressure of the fluid and other contents of the vessel should also be taken into consideration.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE : The internal pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE : One and one-half times the maximum allowable working pressure or the design pressure to be marked on the vessel when calculations are not made to determine the maximum allowable working pressure.

There are many more terms than this… but to start with.. these are sufficient.

What is Pressure Vessel?

Pressure vessels are probably the most widespread “machines” within the different industrial sectors. In fact, there is no factory without pressure vessels, steam boilers, tanks, autoclaves, collectors, heat exchangers, pipes, etc.
More specifically, pressure vessels represent components in sectors of enormous industrial importance, such as the nuclear, oil, petrochemical, and chemical sectors.
There are numerous Codes & Laws present in each country to control the usage of this ‘machines’! its useful but its dangerous!
What one need to design a Pressure Vessel?
● good workmanship with regard to the tools used,
● knowledge of the basic engineering principles and the phenomena involved,
● fantasy and creativity with regard to the selection of the models used,
● fair knowledge of the legal requirements pertaining to design,
● fair knowledge of manufacturing and testing procedures, and especially
● extreme carefulness in each step, from the design specification to the design

Pressure Vessel mostly are made-up of ‘Steel’ Steel behaves in an elastic fashion even beyond the proportional limit, as long as another characteristic point corresponding to stress called elastic limit is not exceeded.In practice, we typically equate the proportional limit to the elastic limit.

we always discuss the steel’s behavior at room temperature. It is, however, of the greatest importance to be aware of the influence of temperature on the mechanical characteristics of the material. As we shall see, not only temperature but also time may have a strong influence.

Next we will discuss some “TERMS”

Material Properties

The differences have to be taken into consideration by both designer and welder. The high thermal expansionand low thermal conductivity of the austenitic steels lead to higher shrinkage stresses in the weld thanwhen carbon and ferritic steels are used. Thin sections of austenitic steels may therefore be deformed when an abnormally high heat input is used

These steels are mainly used in wet environments. Withincreasing chromium and molybdenum contents, the steels become increasingly resistant to aggressive solutions. The higher nickel content reduces the risk of stress corrosion cracking. Austenitic steels are more or less resistant to general corrosion, crevice corrosion
and pitting, depending on the quantity of alloying elements.
Resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion is very important if the steel is to be used in chloride-containing environments. Resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion increases with increasing contents of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen.

Material of Construction

In pressure Part Industry we use various type of material.

Typically in industry like this, we mainly classify material as Mild Steel also known as Carbon Steel, we also use low & high alloy steel & yes stainless steel!

What diffrentiate staineless steel from Carbon steel is its corrosion resistance properties, whcih comes because of its alloy elements.

In my blog hence onward, we will discuss about the material of constrution that we use in this industry.

I’ll come back soon.