One of the purpose of effective quality control program is to determine the suitability of a given base metal or a weld to perform its intended service.
– macroscopic & microscopic examinations
– bend test
– tension test
– hardness test
– charpy vee notch test
– Izod test
– crack tip open displacement test
– nick break test
– chemical test
o Macro Test:
To see the penetration inside the parent material, and to qualify welder & welding procedure, generally a chemical etching is done on the weld specimen, see the image below.
o Bend Test :
There are two different bend testing methods:
- Guided bend test
- Free bend test
o. Guided Bend Test
After bending, the welds are examined for the presence of discontinuities. Many welding standards and specifications consider that a bend specimen has failed if on examination of the convex surface after bending there is a crack or open defect exceeding 3mm (1/8 in.).
|Passed Bend Specimen
|Failed Bend Specimen
The hardness testing methods in use today for testing metals are: – Brinell
– Knoop o CHARPY IMPACT TEST
The Charpy vee-notch impact test is the most common fracture toughness test used by industry. A notched specimen is broken by a swinging pendulum and the amount of energy required to break the specimen is recorded in foot-pounds or joules. This is determined by measuring how far the pendulum swings upwards after it fractures the specimen. If the specimen is tough, the pendulum will only swing up a small distance since part of its energy has been absorbed by the specimen. If the specimen is brittle it will absorb little energy thus allowing the pendulum to swing up to almost its original height
|Charpy Impact Testing Machine
The amount of energy absorbed can be read directly off of the dial indicator that is located on the machine.
The specimen is supported in place as shown and the pendulum strikes it from behind the notch.
|Charpy vee-notch specimen holder
This puts the notch in tension, causing the specimen to fracture. The dimensions of the specimen are shown in the next diagram. In some cases sub size specimens may be used when the material thickness is to small to accommodate the full size specimens. It is extremely important that the specimen is machined to the tolerances and finishes specified (eg ASTM E23 Standard Methods For Notched Bar Impact Testing Of Metallic Materials).
|Charpy vee-notch specimen dimensions
Metals such as carbon and low alloy steels, exhibit a change in failure mode with decreasing temperature. For this reason, it is common to conduct impact tests over a range of specimen temperatures. The performance of the material at different temperatures can be observed and a conclusion made regarding the temperature below which the material can no longer be used without a risk of brittle fracture. The graph shows the relationship between test specimen temperature and absorbed energy
|Impact energy vs temperature
The absorbed energy is the most common value reported, however, the percent shear and the lateral expansion may also be noted. Metals that exhibit a high Charpy vee notch value are typically those that are more resistant to brittle fracture. It is important to remember that these tests are comparative only and are no guarantee of ductile behaviour in actual service.
The fractured ends of a specimen often reveal the manner in which it fractured. If the specimen has fractured in a brittle manner with low energy the faces will have a flat, crystalline and shiny surface. A tough specimen will exhibit more deformation and will have a dull and fibrous surface.
|Fractured charpy vee-notch specimen
o IZOD IMPACT TEST
The Izod test is another form of impact testing. It also involves the use of a vee notched specimen and a machine to deliver an impact blow to the specimen. Testing is generally carried out with the specimens at room temperature since the time required to accurately place it in the machine allows its temperature to increase. This can introduce a significant error when conducting tests at various temperatures.
The positioning of the specimen within the testing machine is critical. Unlike the Charpy specimen, the Izod specimen is held rigidly in a vice type fixture with the notched side facing the direction of impact. The centerline of the notch must be in the plane of the vice top within .125 mm. Once the specimen is in place the hammer is released from a preset height and allowed to strike the specimen thus fracturing it at the vee notch
|Izod specimen set up
|Izod impact specimen dimensions